THE EINSTEIN-ROSEN BRIDGE
The Einstein-Rosen Bridge is also called a wormhole, which basically is like a shortcut from one place to another. You can travel many light years (9.5 trillion kilometers) or even from your room to the fridge to get a snack. Here’s the deal. You can also travel through time, maybe to change the fact that you failed that last Chemistry test. A wormhole is much like a tunnel with two ends, each at separate points in space-time.
Wormholes that could be crossed will first need to be stabilized with something like the Tesseract from Avengers. It is an odd type of matter, known as exotic matter that has negative energy density.
Space-time is the four dimensional coordinate system, containing three dimensions of space, and one dimension of time.
An easier way to understand it is that there are three dimensions of space, specifically:
- Up and down
- Left and right
- Near and far
Assume it’s a sunny day (it’s hot in Chennai, and I have no idea why you’re doing this), and you’re out holding a metre scale in your hand. Look at the scale’s shadow. It’ll have the same length of the scale. Now, if you tilt the angle of the scale, the shadow will slowly grow shorter,
When objects move quickly, they shrink, only for as long as they are moving. In other words, the object shrinks in space, but only changes its angle in space-time. If you could see things in four dimensional space-time, then you’ll see that the angle of the moving object is changed and not its size.
EXOTIC MATTER, NEGATIVE ENERGY AND NEGATIVE MASS
Exotic matter is matter that is different from the kind of matter that is made of protons, neutrons and electrons, and has different properties from that of ‘normal’ matter. Exotic mass has been a kind of a colloquial term for dark matter and negative mass.
Negative mass can compared to that one student who wants to study during P.E.
It’s a different type in itself, because it moves in the direction opposite to direction of applied force, and, if this negative mass had a positive charge, it would accelerate away from objects with a negative charge, and accelerate towards objects with a positive charge. So much for opposites attract. Yet, it doesn’t completely trash the law of conservation of momentum or the law of conservation of energy.
The closest known proven reference to exotic matter is in the Casimir effect, which I know nothing about.
Negative energy is a concept used in physics to explain the nature of certain fields, including the gravitational field and a number of quantum field effects.
In more speculative theories, negative energy is involved in wormholes which allow time travel and warp drives for faster-than-light space travel.
THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can only be changed from one form to the other. It also requires that the net energy doesn’t change.
The strength of the gravitational attraction between two objects represents the amount of gravitational energy in the field which attracts them towards each other.
Consider two objects placed far away from each other. Each of these objects has a certain gravitational energy, and, the farther they are from each other, the force of attraction and energy decreases.
If such massive objects were to move to each other, they would accelerate under gravity, and their positive kinetic energy would increase. At the same time, the gravitational force and energy will also increase.
Now, if we see the reference made on the law of conservation of energy, you’ll notice that the net energy mustn’t change. Now, if the force of attraction and the gravitational energy increases, then, the net energy will change.
To avoid this, one force has to be negative, and since the force of attraction is increasing, it is clearly negative.
In a universe where positive energy predominates, it is predicted by many scientists that, in the end, it will collapse in a “Big Crunch”
An example is our universe. Might have made you uncomfortable to know that the very ground you’re standing on is going to be crushed in an inter-universal process.
Everyone is going to die.
Oh yeah, and your math teacher, too.
You remember that small reference I made on the stable wormholes and the Tesseract? No? Neither do I. A small correction. Even the Tesseract is not stable, because Dr.Selvig needed Iridium to stabilize it.
But fine, it basically says that you need stable wormholes to make sure you can travel (through time, not to visit Aunt Lucy).
The theory of general relativity predicts that if traversable wormholes exist, can also alter the speed of time. They could allow time travel. This would be accomplished by accelerating one end of the wormhole to a high velocity relative to the other, and then sometime later bringing it back.
I’m sure you have heard of how you can cease to exist if you mess with time. There are enough movies about that.
To those who don’t know, basically, one small edit in your timeline can cause many others to distort. Suppose you travel back to the time your mother meets your father or something, and you put one toe out of line, by mistake or not, they could never meet each other, and if they don’t, what’ll happen to you?
Thanks for trudging through this passage and finishing it without falling asleep or going insane.
Wikipedia and Horribly Famous were very helpful.
(P.S Did you understand anything?)
(P.P.S ‘Cause I know I didn’t :P)